使用python实现单例模式

2013-12-26

单例模式是一个常见的设计模式,本文讲述如何使用Python 2.7实现单例模式。

一个简单实现


class Foo(object):
    __instance = None
    def __init__(self):
        pass
    @classmethod
    def getinstance(cls):
        if(cls.__instance == None):
            cls.__instance = Foo()
        return cls.__instance   

if __name__ == '__main__':
    foo1 = Foo.getinstance()
    foo2 = Foo.getinstance()
    print id(foo1)
    print id(foo2)
    print id(Foo())

输出的前两个结果是相同的(id(foo1)id(foo2)的值相同),第三个结果和前两个不同。这里类方法getinstance()用于获取单例,但是类本身也可以实例化,这样的方式其实并不符合单例模式的要求。但是这样做也有好处,代码简单,大家约定好这样子调用就行了。但是最好在类的命名上也体现了出来这是一个单例类,例如Foo_singleton

换一个思路



先说一下__init____new__的区别:

class Foo(object):
    __instance = None
    def __init__(self):
        print 'init'
if __name__ == '__main__':
    foo = Foo()

运行结果是:

init

而下面的示例:

class Foo(object):
    __instance = None
    def __init__(self):
        print 'init'
    def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        print 'new'

if __name__ == '__main__':
    foo = Foo()

运行结果是:

new

__new__是一个类方法,会创建对象时调用。而__init__方法是在创建完对象后调用,对当前对象的实例做一些一些初始化,无返回值。如果重写了__new__而在__new__里面没有调用__init__或者没有返回实例,那么__init__将不起作用。以下内容引用自[1]

If __new__() returns an instance of cls, then the new instance’s __init__() method will be invoked like __init__(self[, ...]), where self is the new instance and the remaining arguments are the same as were passed to __new__().

If __new__() does not return an instance of cls, then the new instance’s __init__() method will not be invoked.

这样做:

class Foo(object):
    __instance = None
    def __init__(self):
        print 'init'

    def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        print 'new'
        if cls.__instance == None:
            cls.__instance = cls.__new__(cls, *args, **kwargs)
        return cls.__instance

if __name__ == '__main__':
    foo = Foo()

错误如下:

RuntimeError: maximum recursion depth exceeded in cmp

而这样也有一样的错误:

class Foo(object):
    __instance = None
    def __init__(self):
        if self.__class__.__instance == None:
            self.__class__.__instance = Foo()
        print 'init'

if __name__ == '__main__':
    foo = Foo()

该怎么做呢?

下面参考了[2]:

class Foo(object):
    __instance = None
    def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        print 'hhhhhhhhh'
        if not cls.__instance:
            cls.__instance = super(Foo, cls).__new__(cls, *args, **kwargs)
        return cls.__instance

    def hi(self):
        print 'hi, world'
        print 'hi, letian'

if __name__ == '__main__':
    foo1 = Foo()
    foo2 = Foo()
    print id(foo1)
    print id(foo2)
    print isinstance(foo1, object)
    print isinstance(foo1, Foo)
    foo1.hi()

运行结果:

hhhhhhhhh
hhhhhhhhh
39578896
39578896
True
True
hi, world
hi, letian

那么,到底发生了什么,我们先回顾一下super:

>>> print super.__doc__
super(type) -> unbound super object
super(type, obj) -> bound super object; requires isinstance(obj, type)
super(type, type2) -> bound super object; requires issubclass(type2, type)
Typical use to call a cooperative superclass method:
class C(B):
    def meth(self, arg):
        super(C, self).meth(arg)

可以肯定上面的单例模式代码中的这一行代码:

cls.__instance = super(Foo, cls).__new__(cls, *args, **kwargs)

super(Foo, cls)object,super(Foo, cls).__new__方法使用的是object的__new__方法。我们看一下object.__new__方法的作用:

>>> print object.__new__.__doc__
T.__new__(S, ...) -> a new object with type S, a subtype of T

如果是一个继承链


class Fo(object):
    def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        print 'hi, i am Fo'
        return  super(Fo, cls).__new__(cls, *args, **kwargs)

class Foo(Fo):
    __instance = None
    def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        if not cls.__instance:
            print Foo is cls
            print issubclass(cls, Fo)
            print issubclass(cls, object)
            cls.__instance = super(Foo, cls).__new__(cls, *args, **kwargs)
        return cls.__instance

    def hi(self):
        print 'hi, world'

if __name__ == '__main__':
    foo1 = Foo()
    foo1.hi()
    print isinstance(foo1, Foo)
    print isinstance(foo1, Fo)
    print isinstance(foo1, object)

运行结果如下:

True
True
True
hi, i am Fo
hi, world
True
True
True

如果如下定义Fo,也正常运行:

class Fo(object):
    pass

但是,若这样定义:

class Fo(object):
    def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        print 'hi, i am Fo'

运行时报错如下:

AttributeError: 'NoneType' object has no attribute 'hi'

参考资料


[1] http://docs.python.org/2/reference/datamodel.html#object.__new__

[2] http://stackoverflow.com/questions/31875/is-there-a-simple-elegant-way-to-define-singletons-in-python/31887#31887

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